Market Structures SMC [TradingFinder] BOS/CHoCH Major & Minor


Understanding market structure involves analyzing market behavior. In other words, market structure encompasses how the market forms and evolves within trends.

Market structures are typically fractal and nested, so we categorize them into internal (minor) and external (major) structures. There are various definitions of market structure, with different approaches such as Smart Money and ICT providing their own interpretations.

🟣How to Use

The first step in identifying market structure is to analyze key highs and lows. An uptrend is formed when highs and lows are successively higher than previous ones. Similarly, in a downtrend, lows and highs are successively lower than previous ones.

Market trends consist of two types of movements:

•Impulsive movements
•Corrective movements

Impulsive movements align with the main trend and possess high strength and momentum. Conversely, corrective movements go against the main trend and have lower strength and momentum. The following example illustrates these concepts.

🔵Identifying Break of Structure (BOS)

In a specific trend, for example in a downtrend, when the price breaks below the previous low and forms a new low (LL), a Break of Structure occurs. In an uptrend, a BOS (Market Structure Break or MSB) happens when the price rises and surpasses the last high.

We need at least one BOS to confirm a trend. Breaking above or below the previous high or low must be confirmed by closing at least one candle after that level.

🔵Identifying Change of Character (CHOCH)

Change of Character (CHOCH) is a key concept in market structure analysis. A change in structure signals a trend change. In other words, a trend ends with a CHOCH (Market Structure Shift or MSS). For instance, in a downtrend, the price declines with BOS.

BOS indicates the strength of the trend, but when the price increases and surpasses the last high, a CHOCH occurs, signaling a shift from a downtrend to an uptrend.

This does not mean entering a buy trade; instead, we should wait for a BOS in the upward direction to confirm the uptrend. Unlike BOS, confirming a CHOCH does not require a candle to close; simply breaking above or below the previous high or low with the candle's wick is sufficient. The following examples show bearish and bullish CHOCH.

🔵Range Market Structure

Besides uptrends and downtrends, a third structure often found in the market is the range or sideways structure. In this state, the power of buyers and sellers is almost equal, and the market lacks a clear trend.

Many traders believe that the Forex market ranges 80% of the time. Therefore, it requires a lot of patience to wait for a new trend to start.


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